TASK 1 how does my work fit into the Film industry:
Publushersglobal (No Date)’Film Publishers of the United Kingdom’ Available at: http://www.publishersglobal.com/directory/united-kingdom/subject/film-publishers/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Missconnell (2014) ‘Section b mock exam tips’ Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/MissConnell/section-b-mock-exam-tips (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Walker, M. (2013) ‘The 20th Century Fox Logo: A Brief History’ Available at: http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/gallery/20th-century-fox-logo-a-576643/1-193553 (Last accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Bownlee, J. (2014) ‘The Surprising History Of The Warner Bros. Logo’ Available at: https://www.fastcodesign.com/3027046/the-surprising-design-history-of-the-warner-bros-logo
(Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Lope, N. (2016) ‘Netflix just changed its icon [Updated]’ Available at: https://thenextweb.com/apps/2016/06/20/netflix-just-changed-logo/#.tnw_4NW80i4g (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
potlandfilmfestival ( not date) ‘Portland Film Festival’ Available at: http://portlandfilmfestival.com/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Melanin Majority (No Date) ’13 Must-See Melanated Films At Sundance Film Festival 2017′ Available at: http://www.melaninmajority.com/experiences/13-black-films-see-sundance-film-festival-2017/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
TASK 2 Equipment:
Identify the relevant equipment needed for your project and provide details, explaining why it is needed.
- consumables ( eg stationary )
- technology ( recording equipment, computers, peripherals
- Software ( general software and job specific software )
- Specification ( system requirements, file types and compatibility )
- Services ( the internet, cloud storage, communications/ productivity)
consumables ( eg stationary )
Scottish PEN (No Date) ‘pick a committee’
A pen is one of the most Vital pieces equipment that I must have when thinking about the equipment needed for my project. I will use it for a huge variety of different things. This can be anything from writing down important notes and research, to completing storyboards and documentation.
OfficeXPRESS (2014) ‘Choosing paper fit for the job’
Paper is another essential piece of equipment to own throughout this project. I will be using paper for a variety of different things, from drawing my storyboards on, to completing the relevant documentation for project, such as locations recess and the risk assessment.
technology ( recording equipment, computers, peripherals)
Canon EOS 700D
Westlake, A. and Diallo, A. (2013) ‘Canon EOS 700D/Rebel T5i In-Depth Review’
As my Final Major Project is going to be a Short Film, a Camera of some sort is incredibly important. The Camera that I am using is going to be the Canon EOS 700D. I am so thankful to have the opportunity to use this camera, but if I had a higher budget, this is not the camera I would choose to use. If I was making this short film. If i had the opportunity i would use the Sony HXR-MC2500E Shoulder Mount AVCHD Camcorder (PAL). This is the case for a variety of different reasons. For example, the video below shows a huge array of features that my current camera lacks. But, this camera is way out of my price range, and would cost around £1200.
Morgan, J. (2012) ‘Sony HXR-MC2000E Review’
Henry’s (No Date) ‘VELBON DF40 PHOTO VIDEO TRIPOD ‘
A tripod is a really important piece of equipment to consider when filming a Short Film. When working on a previous project earlier on in the year, of the main problems that the project had was that there was shaky footage. We did not end up using a tripod or steady cam for the production, which has clearly a mistake. The footage looked fine in the small camera screen when we looked back through the footage on location. By time we got back to the classroom and uploaded the footage, we realised that the footage was extremely shaky and didn’t look professional at all. Sadly, we did not have time to reshoot the footage. As a solution to this I will make sure that I use a tripod when shooting scenes for my FMP, and reshoot any footage I am not happy with where possible.
Greenkit (no Date) ‘Innovative film lighting equipment hire’
Price: £65 Per Day for Hire
For my Project I will be using an LED light as a fill light, to help me fill in any of the shadows that are cast by natural light. I will also be using a range of filters to help distinguish between the dream world and reality. I a really looking forward to getting the chance to experiment with lighting to try to create a dream like atmosphere. The LED light shown above is £65 per day to hire. I would be happy to use this LED light for my student production, and in the industry, as it is an easy, hand held LED light with all of the functions that I need for my short film.
Amazon (No Date) ‘Neewer® 4 Pieces Universal Transparent Lighting Color Filter (Red,Blue,Pink,Purple) for Neewer,Nanguang CN126,CN160 and CN216 Photography LED Video Light’
When trying to create the dream like atmosphere, I will be using filters on the LED light to create a more dreamlike colour palette, possibly pale blues and pastel colours. These filters are perfect to go with the LED I will be using, and are only $9.99, which is perfectly in my budget. Using filters such as these are a non expensive way to use colour lighting, and I would use them in the professional industry as well as a school production.
Two Lapel Microphones
Califone (No Date) ‘Electret Lapel Microphone’
For my production, I have decided to use two lapel microphones, on for each character. Lapel microphones are much smaller microphones that you use when you want to isolate sound to a specific person. For example, if you were performing on stage in a Christmas Pantomime, each main character could have their own lapel microphone so they could all move around the stage and talk to each other whilst being heard. I have decided to use lapel microphones for my Short Film, as I want to get the best audio possible for my production. Lapel microphones will isolate the audio for both of the individual characters, and allow me to get the best audio possible. Unlike a shotgun microphone, lapel microphones can be used for any shot, including establishing shots and shots where a shotgun microphone may have to be in shot to pick up high quality audio.
Dell intel core i3
Snapdeal (No Date) ‘Dell Optiplex 3020 All in One Desktop (Core i3 (4th Generation)-4 GB RAM-500 GB HDD-46.99 cm (18.5)-Linux/Ubuntu) (Black)’
The computer system I will be using is the Del intel Core i3. This computer and system is easy to use, and I have been using it all year. I feel like I am used to the way it works, and what it offers. In the professional industry, I would probably not use this computer. I would definitely use a computer system with Avid Media Composer preinstalled onto it, as this is the editing software I am going to be using to edit my short film. I think that I would prefer to use the HP Pavilion 570-p057na Desktop PC:
curryspcworld (No Date) ‘HP Pavilion 570-p057na Desktop PC – Blue’
Some of the top features that I find really appealing about this model is the following:
curryspcworld (No Date) ‘HP Pavilion 570-p057na Desktop PC – Blue’
Bennett, A. (2016) ‘Microsoft is simplifying updates for Windows 7 and 8.1’
Windows 7 is a system that I am used to, and so it is by far the most practical and easy system for me to use when researching, editing and evaluating my final major project. Windows 7, for me personally is an easy, fast and effective software that I have found incredibly useful to use. This is why I think that it will be useful throughout my final major project.
Carnoy, D. (2012) ‘Apple Ships Mic-less EarPods with new ipod touch’
Headphones are actually a really important piece of technical equipment that I must remember when recording audio for my short film. I will be using headphones to listen to the audio be captured on the day of recording audio. This will allow me to easily look back through the footage I have recorded, and decide what has been successful, and possibly what needs reshooting. Using headphones will ensure that I am hearing the audio in the same quality I would be hearing it when it was it has been editing into my short film.
I am going to be using Apple Headphones to listen to the footage recorded. Personally I am really happy to be using these earphones for my Short Film, as they are of extremely high quality, and I got mine for £21.99. In the professional industry, I would probably not use these headphones. After some research, if I had the budget to buy better earphones/ headphones, I would purchase Audio-Technica M50X Studio Monitor Headphones. Here are some of the features of these headphones:
A.C Audioonline (No Date) ‘Audio-Technica M50X Studio Monitor Headphones’
Software ( general software and job specific software )
SOHO EDITORS (No Date) ‘Avid Media Composer Courses’
Price: around £100
It has been argued that Avid is quite a complicated editing software. We actually use this editing software as it is a software that is often used in the industry. Being able to work with and understand such a complicating editing software at this stage is actually helping me to become more employable in the future. This is because it will be easy for us to adapt our knowledge to another editing software.
Avid also has many features that can be really beneficial when trying to create a unique and eye catching edit. For example, Avid has an extremely logical layout, and so it is easy and simple to find most features, even of you haven’t used Avid a lot before. This makes the editing process both efficient and enjoyable.
Avid Media Composer also has a variety of different keyboard shortcuts that make editing even quicker and more efficient than some other pieces of editing software, for example:
- J: backward 6 frames at a time
- K: pause
- L: forward 6 frames at a time
- I and O: use I and O to create your inputs and outputs
- Space: watch
- V: Splice in
- B: Over right and put in
- D: clear mark in
- F: clear mark out
- G: Clear both marks
millenium (No Date) ‘Microsoft Word’
Price: £50 per year
Word is a service that I have been using for many years. I have decided to use this software to help with a variety of different things. This could be from finding an easy way to write up my research, evaluations and relevant documentation, to helping me to note down a shot list to help to remind me of all of the shots I need.
Services ( the internet, cloud storage, communications/ productivity)
SmartTech (2017) ‘st1707: Internet Users Beware! This may not be the website you think it is [Podcast]’
The iCloud has worked for me so far as an easy way to message across vital research and information that I need to put together. I did some research about the amount of storage that iCloud has available, and this is what I have found:
Apple inc. (No Date) ‘iCloud storage plans and pricing’
Overall, iCloud is working great as a way for me to send and receive my research from different devices, so I can put it all together in one place.
Hague, W. (2017) ‘If social media giants want to decry tight regulations, they should take some responsibility first’
Google is by far one of the most incredible sources of information. I intend to use it when doing research for my Final Major Project. I prefer Google over other services such as Bing, as Google almost always has more search results and, in my opinion, it almost always places the most relevant search results near the top, and so researching is faster and more efficient. It is also extremely quick and and simple to use.
Harvard Referencing Task 2:
Scottish PEN (No Date) ‘pick a committee’ Available at: http://scottishpen.org/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
OfficeXPRESS (2014) ‘Choosing paper fit for the job’ Available at: http://www.officexpress.co.uk/choosing-paper-fit-job/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Henry’s (No Date) ‘VELBON DF40 PHOTO VIDEO TRIPOD ‘ Available at: https://www.henrys.com/10137-VELBON-DF40-PHOTO-VIDEO-TRIPOD.aspx (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Westlake, A. and Diallo, A. (2013) ‘Canon EOS 700D/Rebel T5i In-Depth Review’ Available at: https://www.dpreview.com/reviews/canon-eos-700d-rebel-t5i (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Greenkit (no Date) ‘Innovative film lighting equipment hire’ Available at: http://www.greenkit.london/film-lighting-equipment-hire (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Amazon (No Date) ‘Neewer® 4 Pieces Universal Transparent Lighting Color Filter (Red,Blue,Pink,Purple) for Neewer,Nanguang CN126,CN160 and CN216 Photography LED Video Light’ Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Neewer-Universal-Transparent-Lighting-Photography/dp/B00ZP45V8M(Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Califone (No Date) ‘Electret Lapel Microphone’ Available at: http://www.califone.com/products/lm319.php (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Snapdeal (No Date) ‘Dell Optiplex 3020 All in One Desktop (Core i3 (4th Generation)-4 GB RAM-500 GB HDD-46.99 cm (18.5)-Linux/Ubuntu) (Black)’ Available at: https://www.snapdeal.com/product/dell-optiplex-3020-desktop-pc4th/347274767(Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Bennett, A. (2016) ‘Microsoft is simplifying updates for Windows 7 and 8.1’ Available at: https://mspoweruser.com/microsoft-simplifying-updates-windows-7-8-1/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Carnoy, D. (2012) ‘Apple Ships Mic-less EarPods with new ipod touch’ Available at: https://www.cnet.com/uk/news/apple-earnings-are-coming-but-how-about-that-iphone-8/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
SOHO EDITORS (No Date) ‘Avid Media Composer Courses’ Available at: https://sohoeditors.com/training/avid/media-composer (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
millenium (No Date) ‘Microsoft Word’ Available at: http://mil-arch.com/courses/microsoft-word/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
SmartTech (2017) ‘st1707: Internet Users Beware! This may not be the website you think it is [Podcast]’ Available at: http://www.smarttech.tv/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Hague, W. (2017) ‘If social media giants want to decry tight regulations, they should take some responsibility first’ Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/google/ (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
Morgan, J. (2012) ‘Sony HXR-MC2000E Review’ Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mo84wb7gsyA (Last Accessed: 2nd May 2017)
A.C Audioonline (No Date) ‘Audio-Technica M50X Studio Monitor Headphones’ Available at: https://www.acaudio.co.uk/pro-audio/headphones-240/studio-241/audio-technica-m50x-headphones.asp?gclid=CPrF1P_l1NMCFcgy0wod9DkEhw (Last accessed: 2nd May 2017)
curryspcworld (No Date) ‘HP Pavilion 570-p057na Desktop PC – Blue’ Available at: http://www.currys.co.uk/gbuk/computing/desktop-pcs/desktop-pcs/hp-pavilion-570-p057na-desktop-pc-blue-10158582-pdt.html?istCompanyId=bec25c7e-cbcd-460d-81d5-a25372d2e3d7&istItemId=xpiqrrpwwq&istBid=tztx&srcid=198&cmpid=ppc~gg~1010+%28PLA%29+WINDOWS+DESKTOPS+-+Adaptive~1010+%28PLA%29+WINDOWS+DESKTOPS+-+Adaptive+ad+group~Exact&mctag=gg_goog_7904&kwid=GOOGLE&device=c&ds_kids=92700015678246391&PLA=1&gclid=COvC88KA1tMCFcgy0wod9DkEhw&gclsrc=aw.ds&dclid=CNificOA1™CFUUS0wodnsEO_A (Last Accessed: 4th May 2017)
Apple inc. (No Date) ‘iCloud storage plans and pricing’ Available at: https://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT201238 (Last Accessed: 4th May 2017)
TASK 3: Character Profiles.
Target audience is one of the most important elements of a Film to research and understand. To help me to develop my understanding of my target audience, I will be creating two character profiles of individuals that fit into my target audience. Not only is this going to help me to broaden my knowledge of my target audience significantly, but it will also help me to understand in a more detailed way about the demographics and psychometrics of my target audience. I am really interested in the psychometrics especially of my target audience. I am really intrigued to be allowed the opportunity to thin more into how the audience members thinks, their values, attitudes and lifestyle.
When completing my two character profiles, I will be thinking and talking about the following elements:
- How the audience members think
Harvard Referencing for Task 3:
Longu, M (2016) ‘Study in Spain: Fees and Living Costs’ Available at: http://www.mastersportal.eu/articles/357/study-in-spain-fees-and-living-costs.html (Last accessed 24th April 2017 )
TASK 4 Specific Job Roles:
When thinking about my project, it is really important to think about how it is relevant to work in the industry. Throughout this project i will be takin got many roles, but my primary job title will be ‘Director’. To help me to develop my understanding of this job role further, I will be finding out, researching and reflecting on the following:
- personal attribute
- identify existing practitioners working in that role
I hope that doing this will help me to further my understanding of the vast variety of requirements and skills that it takes to become a Director in the Film industry.
I will also be researching relevant job roles specifically related to my work on my project. Identifying key team members with whom I would be working with for part of my job will help me to develop and understand the team with which I would be working with in the Film industry. I will be researching the following about each key team member:
- personal attribute
- identify existing practitioners working in that role
although it is not necessarily completely needed to get a qualification to become a Director, some of the qualifications that could work to your advantage are for example:
study.com (no date) ‘How to become a movie director.
As I stated previously, having a degree is not completely necessary to have a degree to become a Director, but some of the degrees that could help to develop skills that compliment a director could be degrees in: Journalism, Film, Communication, Acting and Arts Management.
Some of the key skills that are pivotal when considering a job role as a Director are as follows:
Communication is an extremely important part of the job role ‘Director’. Directors must communicate with all of the other members of the crew, for example producers and possibly editors. This means that communication skills are vital to making sure the work environment is a positive and practical space.
Another important skill that is relevant when thinking about skills needed to be a director is leadership. Leadership is an extremely important skill to have, as Directors are often the one with the creative vision, and should strive to guide each individual of the crew to produce and see your vision.
- Working Well Under Pressure:
Another pivotal skill relevant to being a Director is the ability to work well under pressure. The Director is responsible for translating their creative vision to the cast and crew, allowing and guiding it through the production process This means that they can often experience great setbacks, or problems that need solutions. Over the last year I have learnt a lot about the amount of problems that can be faced in the pre production, production and post production of a project. It has become clear to me over this year that the Director must be able to step back, evaluate the situation, and come up with reasonable solutions to a variety of different problems.
A director must have some experience in the industry or as a filmmaker. This can be gained by creating your own short amateur short films, to working in the theatre. You can also gain experiences by getting for example a bachelors degree or form of higher education involving Film.
A Director must have a knowledge of Film and the Film industry as a whole. This knowledge can be gained by working your way up in the industry, from a runner and through the Production pipeline. Although this is not a requirement, it can really be useful to help you to gain the knowledge that you need to have a full perspective of what it like to be each member of the crew. This can help to develop your communication skills with each member of the crew. You are also required to have some practical experience. This can be from working on your own short films, to working in the theatre as a screen writer, anything to help you gain experience, knowledge and skills.
According to creativeskillset, a Director must also have an extensive knowledge of filmmaking and up to date equipment.
Just like any other member of the crew and cast, the Director must be extremely passionate about film and their job role. As well as having to be self-motivated, Directors have to be able to translate their creative vision into scripts and onto the scree. They are a pivotal part of the production pipeline. This is why Directors must be passionate about their job.
Another pivotal skill that is relevant to the job role of a ‘director’ is creativity. The Director is responsible for the overall vision of the production, and so creativity is extremely important when trying to come with a unique and success vision. Another reason creativity is an important skill in the job role of a Director is that you will often find yourself having to find creative solutions to problems that have occurred, be this in pre production, production or even post production.
Existing practitioners working in that role:
Tim Burton has been a huge part of my childhood. I remember watching so many of his movies with my Mum and Nan, and I continue to watch them every year.
Tim Burton went to the California Institute of the Arts. in 1979 he got to work for Disney doing animation, but he really disliked this as it bored him. But it was noticed that his talent was not being used to it’s full potential so he was in a way let loose. This didn’t work either, as Burton’s sketches didn’t fit with what Disney wanted to see in their films. This is when he began on his own projects including: ‘Vincent’ (1982) and ‘The Nightmare Before Christmas’ (1993.)
Tim Burton is someone who has inspired me greatly from a young age, his creative and often abstract concepts are something that I really do look up to.
Every Frame A Painting (2015) ‘Akira Kurosawa – Composing Movement’
Another really influential Director that I have been inspired by throughout the last year is Director Akira Kurosawa. it was really informative and eyeopening to learn about the variety of different techniques Kurosawa uses to keep every scene interesting and appealing, keeping an audience captivated through every single shot:
- The movement of nature:
Movement of nature helps to give the shot a huge amount of visual interest, and can add another layer emotion and way of conveying information to an audience. Kurosawa used weather such as rain, wind, fire and snow a lot to convey emotion to the audience, as well as to keep the audience invested in the shot. For example, rain is often used to convey sadness or loss to an audience, whereas fire can often be used to represent anger and hatred.
- Movement of groups:
Kurosawa often uses large groups of people in shots. Thesis is because of a variety of different reasons. Firstly, when you put so many people in a shot you create a big reaction, causing a high level of emotion. It is often said that the more people that are in the scene, the bigger the emotion feels to the audience. Another reason is that you can crete incredible reaction shots using a large amount of people. This is because you can show the audience how a large group of people are reacting to the news that you are also hearing as an audience at the same time.
- Movement of individuals:
The Blocking Kurosawa uses is often unrealistic and exciting.
what the actor will do within the scene to make sure that they stay within the shot. Helping the camera and actor work together.
the way an individual moves can help the audience to quickly identify the character, and well as et an indication of how they are feeling in their current situation.
- Movement of the camera:
Each camera movement has a clear beginning middle and end of the shot. Eat shot itself creates a story. In Kurosawa Films, each shot often changes the direction of the previous one. Kurosawa can express characters emotion in a scene through camera movement.
- Movement of the cut:
his movies flow as they tend to cut on movement, usually finishing on something static. By switching up this rhythm he keeps the audience on their toes, as you don’t know where the cut will be.
although it is not necessarily completely needed to get a qualification to become a Producer, some of the qualifications that could work to your advantage are for example:
study.com (No date) ‘How to become a producer | Career roadmap’
Communication skills are extremely important as a Producer. Producers work closely with the Director and other members of the crew to ensure the production is successful. Producers are in control of every aspect of the overall production. This means that it is vital that the Producer can communicate quickly and efficiently.
Another vital skill a Producer must have is the ability to budget. One of the Producers key responsibilities is to turn story ideas into profitable films, so they must have a good idea of finance, and be good at negotiating.
- Working under pressure:
Working under pressure is a extremely important part of being a producer. A producer is responsible for putting together and creating a talented cast and crew, as well as an environment where these people can flourish. Other responsibilities can include scheduling, budgeting and making sure day-to-day operations goes smoothly. This means Producers often have to work well under pressure and so this is a skill that they must have.
As stated previously, a Producer is often in charge of creating an environment where Actors and Crew alike can flourish. This means that they must be good at motivating a team, and keeping the team focused on the task at hand. This is why Producers must be good at motivating a team.
The experience needed in the case of a Producer can depend greatly on the job itself, but mostly a large amount of experience in needed to be a Producer. To gain the experience, a Bachelors or Masters degree can be helpful for this. As well as this, other things can include apprenticeships, internships and work experience.
A Producer must have a plentiful knowledge of Film and the Film industry. As well as this, they must have a knowledge of budgets, having the knowledge to be able to budget well and negotiate. The producer is in charge of every aspect of the production, from Location, to cast and all the way to the marketing and distribution of the production. This means that the Producer must have a detailed knowledge of each process of making a Film. A Bachelors or Masters degree can be very helpful for this.
Just like any other member of the crew and cast, the producer must be extremely passionate about film and their job role. As well as having to be self-motivated, Producers have to be able to understand the creative process of making a film and also the huge amount of commitment and effort that it takes. This is why Producers must be passionate about their job.
producers must also be extremely committed. I have learnt throughout this year that often things can go wrong in the preproduction, production and postproduction process. This is why it is extremely important for the Producer to be committed to their job, the film and the overall production.
identify existing practitioners working in that role:
GRAZER, B. and FISHMAN, C. (2015) ‘Behind the Mind, and Out-of-this-World Hair, of Legendary Hollywood Producer Brian Grazer’
- A Beautiful Mind (2001 Ron Howard)
- Splash (2014 Ron Howard)
- The Da Vinci Code (2006 Ron Howard)
- Apollo 13 (1995 Ron Howard)
- 8 Mile (2002 Curtis Hanson)
Jarzemsky, J. (2012) ‘INTERVIEW: 007 Scion And Skyfall Producer Barbara Broccoli On Growing Up Bond’
- Spectre (2015 Sam Mendes)
- Skyfall (2012 Sam Mendes)
- Quantum of Solace (2008 Marc Forster)
- Casino Royale (2006 Martin Campbell)
- Die Another Day (2002 Lee Tamahori)
Cinematographer or DOP:
although it is not necessarily completely needed to get a qualification to become a Cinematographer, some of the qualifications and other requirements that are highly recommended are the following:
study.com (No Date) ‘Cinematographer: Educational Requirements & Career Info’
A skill that is extremely important when being a Director of Photography (DOP) is communication skills. The DOP has to communicate with a variety of different members of the crew, for instance the Camera Operator, Costume Designers and the Gaffer. The DOP would have to discuss their ideas and creative visions for the scene, and would have to translate and describe their idea in such a way to make the rest of the crew understand where they are coming from. This is a really important skill to have, as if the rest of the crew don’t understand what you are trying to do, then working as a team can become increasingly difficult.
Another skill that a Director of Photography should have is the ability to be tactful. At first, I did’n’t thin kaon understand why being tactful would be an important skill to have as a DOP, but after researching and furthering my knowledge of what a DOP’s job role consists of, I now believe being tactful is an important skill for a DOP to have. The DOP must be diplomatic and tactful when communicating with the cast and crew because the have to work with such a large variety of people. Team work and the way a crew works as a group can, in a way, determine the level of productivity on set. This is why the Director of Photography must be tactful when communicating wit the cast and crew of a production.
The final skill I am going to be discussing is being decisive. It is very important for the DOP of a production to be decisive. This is because of the fact that productions have set deadlines, this means that decisions must be made quickly and effectively. At rehearsals the DOP and Director go through each shot as the Actors go through their actions. In smaller productions the DoP often works the camera as well, this means all decisions need to be decided on and stuck to. Overall, because of the time restrictions and the amount that needs to be to filmed, the DoP must be decisive.
The Director of Photography should have some industry experience. To gain this experience , the Director of Photography could have has an internship, apprenticeship, or taken part in work experience or volunteered in the film industry in some way. They could have also got a form of higher education involving Film.
The DoP must have an extensive knowledge of the technical elements of a production. According to creativeskillset.org, the Director of Photography should ‘have a good technical knowledge of photo-chemical and digital processes’. They must also ‘know all about camera equipment’ and ‘have in-depth knowledge of lighting techniques and how to achieve them.’
The Director of Photography must be creative. They are responsible for creating the Films unique and individual look, and so creativity is a pivotal skill. The DOP often has to work with lighting, framing and composition to create a visual interesting and stimulating shot. This means that the DOP must have an eye for aesthetically pleasing shots, and be creative enough to create an overall aesthetic for a production.
The DOP must pay extremely close attention to detail when it comes their shot choice. This is due to the fact that any small change in shot can change the whole mood of the shot and moreover the film. Over the past year I have learnt a huge amount about how every aspect of a scene is encoded. The audience decodes everything in and surrounding this scene. This can be fro, the props within a scene, to the overall colour of the scene. For example if the scene had a more red tone, this could suggest possible anger and danger, or maybe lust and love. On the other hand, if the lighting was used to make everything white and bright, this could suggest a more dream like or angelic atmosphere. Overall, this is why the DOP must be particular.
Just like any other member of the crew and cast, the DOP must be extremely passionate about film and their job role. As well as having to be creative and artistic, the DOP must be able to make decisions under pressure and have a detailed knowledge of their field. These are just some of the many reasons that a DOP must be passionate about their job role.
identify existing practitioners working in that role:
Benjamin, B. (No Date) ‘PANAVISION SPONSORS JOHN SEALE MASTER CLASS’
- Mad Max: Fury Road (2015 George Miller)
- The English Patient (1996 Anthony Minghella)
- Dead Poets Society (1989 Peter Weir)
- Harry Potter and The Sorcerers Stone (2001 Chris Columbus)
- Rain man (1988 Barry Levinson)
- Witness (1985 Peter Weir)
DCS (2017) ‘Esteemed Cinematographer Michael Ballhaus, ASC has Departed’
- Goodfellas (1990 Martin Scorsese)
- The Departed (2006 Martin Scorsese)
- Gangs of New York (2002 Martin Scorsese)
- The Color of Money (1986 Martin Scorsese)
You are usually required to have a bachelors degree to be an editor. Some of the other education requirements of being an editor are as follows:
study.com (No Date) ‘Film Editor: Education Requirements to Become a Film Editor’
- organisational skills:
One of the most important skills needed to be an Editor is organisational skills. The Editor is often on an extremely tight schedule, and will have a variety of different deadlines that they must stick to. This means that organisation is pivotal to being successful. Also, according to creativeskillset.org: ‘because scenes are shot and edited out of sequence, Editors may work on scenes from the end of the film before those at the beginning.’ This means that the Editor must be extremely organised, and have a detailed understanding of how the Film unfolds.
Communication skills are extremely important as an Editor. Editors work closely with the Director and other members of the crew to ensure the production is successful. The Editor is in charge of making sure the Film flows from beginning to end. They also have to communicate extremely well with the Director, as they can change the whole outcome of the production through Editing. Editing and the post production process is such and important part of making the Film, and so this is why the Editor much have impeccable communication skills.
- Attention to detail:
Another important skill the Editor must have is attention to detail. The Editor is responsible for making scenes flow seamlessly, from beginning to end. This means that attention to detail is absolutely key to making sure a scene flows the way ti is meant to. Attention to detail will often be important when it comes to colour correction, and spotting any continuity errors that could have been missed when filming.
The Editor should have a vast knowledge of the post production process. They should also have editing experience on the relevant Editing software. This can be learnt through work experience, including apprenticeships and internships. This experience could also be gained by getting a degree subjects involving film and television.
According to creativeskillset.org, the editor must ‘Understand the requirements of relevant health and safety laws and procedures’. This is extremely important, as keeping themselves and others safe is the most important priority. They must also ‘understand dramatic storytelling to create rhythm, pace and tension’. This is something I had not thought of, but I now realised and understand how important it is for the Editor to have detailed knowledge on this. The editing of the Film can dramatically change the overall outcome of the Film, and so the Editor must have detailed knowledge of this. Also, an Editor must ‘be familiar with a variety of computer editing equipment’. This is quite obviously an extremely important part of being an Editor, as a lot of time will be spent editing each scene.
There are a variety of different personal attributes that are an important for the job role of an Editor:
The first personal attribute that is important for an Editor is being imaginative. The Editor is often responsible for the assembly of each piece of the Film. In some way they are responsible for the flow of the Film. Clips are often given to the Editor out of sequence, so it take imagination and creativity to imagine these clips put together. Imagination is needed to edit the clips together with the correct form and flow.
Editing can be a log and intensive process. Long hours and weeks of editing is something that an Editor will undoubtably experience. This means that an Editor must have the patience to edit all of the clips together with the same level of skill and passion as all of the other clips.
The last personal attribute I am going to talk about that an Editor must have is creativity. According to creativeskillset.com ‘Editors select the best takes and edit them together to create scenes. In some cases, an improvised line or an actor’s interpretation of their role may create some on-screen magic that can be developed into a new and exciting scene.’ This shows that the Editor must have a strong creative vision, and must have the ability to use initiative and think creatively about the shots that they are given.
Identify Existing Practitioners Working In That Role:
videoblog.hk (2016) ‘March 2016 – Videoblog’
- The Breakfast Club (1985 John Hughes)
- Dog Day Afternoon (1975 Sidney Lumet)
- Bonnie and Clyde (1967 Arthur Penn)
- The Addams Family (1991 Barry Sonnenfeld)
Thelma Schoonmaker: Lamb, R. (2016) ‘Thelma Schoonmaker interview: editing Silence, Scorsese, Michael Powell’
- The Departed (2006 Martin Scorsese)
- The Wolf of Wall Street 2013 Martin Scorsese)
- Goodfellas (1990 Martin Scorsese)
- Shutter Island (2010 Martin Scorsese)
Harvard Referencing Task 4:
study.com (no date) ‘How to become a movie director.’ Available at: http://study.com/how_to_become_a_movie_director.html (Last Accessed: 26th April 2017)
Jackson, M. and McDermott, A. (2010) ‘Tim Burton Biography’ Available at: http://www.mimarkit.com/biography/ (Last Accessed 26th April 2017)
Radish, C. (2012) ‘Tim Burton Talks BEETLEJUICE 2 and BIG EYES’ Available at: http://collider.com/tim-burton-beetlejuice-2-sequel-big-eyes-interview/ (Last accessed: 26th April 2017)
Every Frame A Painting (2015) ‘Akira Kurosawa – Composing Movement’ Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doaQC-S8de8 (Last Accessed: 15th January 2017)
Creative Skillset (No Date) ‘Director – creative job roles – creative skillset’ Available at: http://creativeskillset.org/job_roles/758_director (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
creative skillset (No Date) ‘Producer’ Available at: http://creativeskillset.org/job_roles/757_producer (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
study.com (No date) ‘How to become a producer | Career roadmap’ Available at: http://study.com/how_to_become_a_film_producer.html (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
study.com (No Date) ‘Cinematographer: Educational Requirements & Career Info’ Available at: http://study.com/articles/Cinematographer_Educational_Requirements_for_a_Career_in_Cinematography.html (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
study.com (No Date) ‘Film Editor: Education Requirements to Become a Film Editor’ Available at: http://study.com/film_editor.html (Last accessed: 27th April 2017)
study.com (No Date) ‘Screenwriter: Responsibilities, Outlook and Requirements’
Available at : http://study.com/articles/Screenwriter_Responsibilities_Outlook_and_Requirements.html (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
Jarzemsky, J. (2012) ‘INTERVIEW: 007 Scion And Skyfall Producer Barbara Broccoli On Growing Up Bond’ Available at: http://movieline.com/2012/10/09/barbara-broccoli-james-bond-007-interview-skyfall-daniel-craig/ (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
GRAZER, B. and FISHMAN, C. (2015) ‘Behind the Mind, and Out-of-this-World Hair, of Legendary Hollywood Producer Brian Grazer’ Available at: http://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2015/02/brian-grazer-hair-autobiography (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
Andrea, N. (2017) ‘Brian Grazer On Indie Imagine TV, ‘Legacy’ Timing & Why ‘24’ Movie Didn’t Happen’ Available at: http://deadline.com/2017/01/brian-grazer-indie-imagine-tv-24-legacy-timing-24-movie-1201887820/ (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
Brennan, C (2006) ‘Brian Grazer Biography’ Available at: http://www.notablebiographies.com/newsmakers2/2006-Ei-La/Grazer-Brian.html (Last Accessed: 27th April 2017)
DCS (2017) ‘Esteemed Cinematographer Michael Ballhaus, ASC has Departed’ Available at: http://www.digitalcinemasociety.org/news/esteemed-cinematographer-michael-ballhaus-asc-departed (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
Benjamin, B. (No Date) ‘PANAVISION SPONSORS JOHN SEALE MASTER CLASS’ Available at: http://panavision.pl/spotlight/uk/panavision-sponsors-john-seale-master-class (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
IMDb (No Date) ‘Michael Ballhaus- IMDb’ Available at: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000841/ 9 (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
IMDb (No Date) ‘Barbara Broccoli – IMDb’ Available at: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0110483/ (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
IMDb (No Date) ‘John Seale – IMDb’ Available at: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0005868/ (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
IMDb (No Date) ‘Brian Grazer – IMDb’ Available at: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004976/ (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
Creative Skillset (No Date) ‘Editor | Creative Skill set’ Available at: http://creativeskillset.org/creative_industries/film/job_roles/2940_editor (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
IMDb (No Date) ‘THE BEST FILM EDITORS’ Available at: http://www.imdb.com/list/ls000915865/ (Last accessed : 28th April 2017)
videoblog.hk (2016) ‘March 2016 – Videoblog’ Available at: https://videoblog.hk/2016/03/ (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
Lamb, R. (2016) ‘Thelma Schoonmaker interview: editing Silence, Scorsese, Michael Powell’ Available at: http://www.denofgeek.com/uk/movies/martin-scorsese/46170/thelma-schoonmaker-interview-editing-silence-scorsese-michael-powell (Last Accessed: 28th April 2017)
TASK 5 Legal and Ethical Considerations:
Throughout this task I will be explaining what I will do to ensure that my production and my final outcome is legal and ethical. I will be identifying and explaining the legal requirements of my project and also identify the paperwork I will need to produce.
Legal and ethical considerations:
Copyright is a very relevant and important thing to consider when thinking about my project. I will be considering a variety of different things when considering copyright including:
- use of trademarks
- use of music
- use of intellectual property
Copyright is very important when thinking about my Short Film as I want to make sure that everything I am doing is both ethic and legal, and that everyone involved is getting the correct credit where it is due. I also want to be able to protect my short film from other people who could want to steal it and claim it to be their own.
Use of trademarks
a trademark, according to uspto.gov, is ‘a word, phrase, symbol or design, or a combination of words, phrases, symbols or designs, that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others.’ Some brands may not want their trademark to be in or associated with your short film. This must be respected, or these brands are able to sue you for this. For example: Nike may not want their shoe brand associated with a certain genre of Film, and so they would not give you permission to use their trademark in their short film.
When thinking about my short film, I will make sure not to show any trademarks of anywhere I haven’t got written permission from.
Use of music
Most music, appart from copyright and royalty free music, needs permission and credit to be used. Similar to trademarks, an artist may not want their song used in your short film, as it may not work with their brand, or where they would like there music to go. This must be respected. For background music in my short film, I will be using royalty and copyright free music. One of my favourite youtube channels to use for this is the ‘Youtube Audio Library.’ Here there is a huge variety of both royalty and copyright free music, separated into playlists based on the mood of the song.
Use of intellectual property
Before talking about intellectual property in relation to my work and legal and ethical considerations, I first wanted to clarify in my mind what was meant by intellectual property:
GOV.UK (No Date) ‘intellectual property and your work – GOV.UK’
To protect my intellectual property, I could add a watermark to my final film, as this would take time and effort to photoshop out. I would also post it with my full name, the copyright symbol and the date I released the Short Film. This is a form of proof that the Short Film is my intellectual property, and so if anyone did steal my footage, I could sue and give proof that the Short Film is intact my own.
Another legal and ethical consideration to think about is local laws. This can be anything from making sure that the area you are filming in is a public area, and that you are allowed to film there. Another example could be if you are planning to Film a fight scene, to let the local Police know what is going on, and what will be taking place that day. This simple action is the correct thing to do to make you you don’t have to waste any Police time.
When thinking about this in relation to my own short film, I don’t think that this would be too relevant. This is due to the fact that I will be Film inside my own home, as it is easy for all of my crew to get to this location, and it works well for what I need.
Confidentiality is another really important element to consider when filming something such as a Documentary. If you are interviewing someone, and they ask for something to be ‘off record’, or they ask for you not to include a certain thing they have said ,you have to respect this.
Because my short Film is not something that would involve anything such as this, I would not be worried about this, but it is clearly something that must be considered and recognised.
As a Media creator, it is extremely important to learn about representation. This is because, as a creator, we are the ones who are representing different types of people to society. Our depiction of those people could actually shape and change the audiences opinion of different types of people in real life. As media creators, we quite literally ‘re-present’ characters to an audience, and the way different things are tackled can change the audiences opinions of characters in a show, and in reality.
One thing I must consider in detail when creating each element of my two characters is stereotypes and archetypes.
Stereotypes are set ideas and opinions about a certain group of people in society. They are used all the time in TV shows and Film and throughout the media in general. They aqre, in short, a generalisation of a group of people in society. The depiction of the character is what is commonly associated with the group of people. It does allow for the audience to recognise the stereotype of the character quickly, but this is ingraining prejudice into our brains. Young children are extremely impressionable, and so these ridiculous generalisations can mould and shape the opinions of the next generation of people. This is one of the reasons that there is so much prejudice and discrimination in society. I am very passionate about this subject, and it is something I have researched about a lot in the past, and I will continue to do so.
An archetype is the ultimate stereotype of character. It goes into detail about the character, everything about them is stereotypical, and relates to the stereotype they have been put into. Like I mentioned previously, the use of archetypes in so common in the media, and it is shaping and changing the opinions of.
I really want to avoid creating a stereotype or archetype of a certain type of person, I would prefer to create a countertype, to challenge societies current views of certain people in society. A countertype is something that goes against a stereotype and an archetype.
Age ratings are extremely important when thinking about legal an ethical considerations. Age ratings on Short films, films and TV shows re very important to ensuring that the people viewing the Film are old enough to be. Shows that can be very scary, or inappropriate for younger audiences will have higher ratings. One example of this is Netflix original series ’13 Reasons Why’ has a rating of 18. This is due to the fact that ’13 Reasons why’ contains scenes shown rape, suicide and self harm. These are all things that some audiences can find disturbing.
When it comes to my short film, I am not too worried about there being anything inappropriate for younger audiences, but this is something I really want to make sure I consider in detail in post production.
Health and Safety:
Risks and Hazards:
One of the most important elements of health and safety is identifying hazards and risks:
- HAZARD: anything that may cause harm. Eg) chemicals electricity
- RISK: the chance of the hazard happening
To make sure that all of my cast and crew are completely safe, I will be completing documentation to further help me to identify any problems or hazards that could danger my cast and crew:
A location recce is a piece of documentation where you go to your area and reflect, note down and evaluate certain things concerning the area. This can be anything from the width of a corridor, to if there are sprinklers nearby. The location recce is a really important part of pre production. The location recce will help me to understand and think about any problems that could occur when on location. It will help me to become more aware of my location.
Heath and Safety Risk Assessment:
Another really important piece of documentation that I will be completing is the Health and Safety Risk Assessment. This piece of documentation will help me to further understand any other risks and hazards that could put my cast and crew at risk. I t will also allow me the time reflect upon and consider the relevant actions to take depending on how severe the hazard is. I will complete a location recce of the area in which I will be filming in. I will make sure to think about the area I will be filming in, and evaluate what I will need to do to further control the environment.
When thinking about any Hazards that I pick up on in my Health and Safety Risk Assessment, I will identify and consider the following:
- Identify the hazards
- Decide who might be harmed and how
- Evaluate the risks and decide upon precautions
- Record your significant findings
- Review you assessments and update them if necessary
Wires on the floor due to a spotlight.
Who might be harmed and how?
Members of the cast and crew could trip and fall on the wires on the floor.
Evaluate the risks and decide upon precisions:
The risk of individuals being hurt due to the hazard of wires on the floor is something that has a simple solution. I would make sure the the wires are all taped down with bright tape. The tape would make sure that all of the wires are flat on the floor, minimising the risk of individuals being hurt. The bright colour of the tape will also work as a warning to the cast and crew to be careful around that specific area. This should not be too necessary, as the wires will be flat to the floor due to the tape, but this will work as an extra precaution.
Harvard Referencing Task 5:
Trademarks (2010) ‘Trademark, copyright to patent?’ Available at: https://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/basics/trade_defin.jsp (Last Accessed: May 4th 2017)
GOV.UK (No Date) ‘intellectual property and your work – GOV.UK’ Available at: https://www.gov.uk/intellectual-property-an-overview/what-ip-is (Last Accessed: May 4th 2017)
The skills and techniques I will be using throughout my final major project will inlace the following:
One of the most relevant and pivotal skills I will be using is creativity. I will be using my creativity and imagination throughout the entirety of my short film, from the storyboarding, to editing and use of lighting to create a dreamlike atmosphere. Creativity is a skill that I have been really trying to develop this year. I really think that over the last few months that I have felt so much more creatively inspired than ever before, and so I am really excited to put this into practise through this short film.
Camera skills are something that I have developed significantly throughout this year. I really want to show the huge variety of skills and techniques that I have learnt regarding the Camera. Here are some examples:
180 Degree Rule:
180 degree rule is there to maintain screen direction and also audience awareness of what is actually going on in the scene. For example, if there are two people standing facing towards each other there is a figurative line, often know as the ‘line of action’, that is there for you to have a constant reminder of what side you are shooting from.
Over The Shoulder Shot:
An over the shoulder shot is shot taken behind someone’s shoulder, often showing a conversation taking place. It helps to link two characters together, giving almost a third person perspective. It shows the perspective of the two characters talking, and helps to establish where the characters are situated.
Shot Reverse Shot:
A shot reverse shot is where you have a shot of one person, and then another shot showing the link between the two people, so the other person, and then this goes back and forth. This is most commonly used when two characters are having a conversation.
Another skill that I am going to showing throughout my final major project is audio skills. I will be using Foley Sound to try to bring the audience into the scene, and to over exaggerate certain sounds when the character is in the dream, to create a more dreamlike atmosphere. Foley effects are sound effects added to film during post production, so after the filming has finished. They are created by Foley Engineers and Foley Designers ( sometimes the same person ) to add over the top of a scene. Here are some examples of the types of things that a Foley Engineer and Foley DEsigner may be asked to create:
- doors opening
- glass smashing
Foley is usually performed by ‘Foley Artists’, sometimes the film is played in complete silence and they match up their movements to the person, so they are creating the same sounds at the same time. Foley Artists don’t always use what they are trying to create to create the sound. For example, if you wanted to create the sound of cutting up a piece of fish, you wouldn’t use a fish for this, as it wouldn’t create the most effective noise. Instead you could use a rock to create the sound of scraping.
I will also be showing what I have learnt this year concerning audio by trying to get the most clear and crisp audio possible when ti comes to my characters talking. Getting crisp and clear sound for when my characters are talking with no distortion is incredibly important. This is due to the fact that if the audio is distorted in some way when I don’t want it to be, it can pull the audience completely out of the scene, losing their interest.
Throughout my Final Major project I will mainly be using natural lighting, but I will be using an LED light and certain colour filters to use as a Fill light, to fill any of the shadows that the natural light has cast on the characters. Throughout my Short Film I will be using three point lighting. One of the most common forms of lighting is called ‘Three point lighting.’ This involves:
- a back light
- a fill light
- a key light
This light is used to separate the subject from the background. Sometimes a person may look like they are blending into the background behind them. This is often how this is prevented.
The fill light is used to fill in any shadows that may have been created by the key light. If this light wasn’t present the subject may appear too dark, which can ruin the whole atmosphere of the photo or scene.
The key light is the main light that is used to focus on the subject. I remember this by thinking that the key light is key.
Editing is something I have learnt such a large array about this year, and I hope to show the skills and techniques that I have learnt this year.
I want to be able to create a distinct difference between the dream world and reality, and I will be using editing to try to create this. There are an extremely large array of skills and techniques that I will be using throughout my editing to create the most successful final product possible:
- syncing sound
- colour correction
- editing the clips together
- creating a clear distinction between the dream world and reality